RESEARCHERS SHOW WHERE THE ALUMINUM TRAVELS TO IN THE BODY & STAYS AFTER VACCINATION

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Eva.Martini
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RESEARCHERS SHOW WHERE THE ALUMINUM TRAVELS TO IN THE BODY & STAYS AFTER VACCINATION

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Messaggio da Eva.Martini » 30 nov 2017, 23:29

http://www.collective-evolution.com/201 ... a-vaccine/

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When it comes to the most widely used adjuvant ingredient found within vaccines, aluminum, many questions have yet to be answered, particularly when it comes to where the aluminum goes after injection, an issue known as biopersistence.


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One reason this question arises is because a causative role has been established in what’s known as macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) lesion in patients who have myalgic encephalomyelitis, or brain inflammation. Myalgia, arthralgia, chronic fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, dysautonomia, and autoimmunity have been temporally linked to aluminium adjuvant-containing vaccine administration (Gherardi and Authier, 2003; Authier et al., 2003; Exley et al., 2009; Rosenblum et al., 2011; Santiago et al., 2014; Brinth et al., 2015; Palmieri et al., 2016).

“Evidence that aluminum-coated particles phagocytozed in the injected muscle and its draining lymph nodes can disseminate within phagocytes throughout the body and slowly accumulate in the brain further suggested that alum safety should be evaluated in the long term.”

And:

Fluorescent nanodiamonds as a relevant tag for the assessment of alum adjuvant particle biodisposition.
Eidi H1,2, David MO3, Crépeaux G4, Henry L5, Joshi V6, Berger MH7, Sennour M8, Cadusseau J9,10, Gherardi RK11, Curmi PA12.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Aluminum oxyhydroxide (alum) is a crystalline compound widely used as an immunologic adjuvant of vaccines. Concerns linked to alum particles have emerged following recognition of their causative role in the so-called macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) lesion in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis, revealing an unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence of alum within immune cells and a fundamental misconception of its biodisposition. Evidence that aluminum-coated particles phagocytozed in the injected muscle and its draining lymph nodes can disseminate within phagocytes throughout the body and slowly accumulate in the brain further suggested that alum safety should be evaluated in the long term. However, lack of specific staining makes difficult the assessment of low quantities of bona fide alum adjuvant particles in tissues.
METHODS:
We explored the feasibility of using fluorescent functionalized nanodiamonds (mfNDs) as a permanent label of alum (Alhydrogel(®)). mfNDs have a specific and perfectly photostable fluorescence based on the presence within the diamond lattice of nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV centers). As the NV center does not bleach, it allows the microspectrometric detection of mfNDs at very low levels and in the long-term. We thus developed fluorescent nanodiamonds functionalized by hyperbranched polyglycerol (mfNDs) allowing good coupling and stability of alum:mfNDs (AluDia) complexes. Specificities of AluDia complexes were comparable to the whole reference vaccine (anti-hepatitis B vaccine) in terms of particle size and zeta potential.
RESULTS:
In vivo, AluDia injection was followed by prompt phagocytosis and AluDia particles remained easily detectable by the specific signal of the fND particles in the injected muscle, draining lymph nodes, spleen, liver and brain. In vitro, mfNDs had low toxicity on THP-1 cells and AluDia showed cell toxicity similar to alum alone. Expectedly, AluDia elicited autophagy, and allowed highly specific detection of small amounts of alum in autophagosomes.
CONCLUSIONS:
The fluorescent nanodiamond technology is able to overcome the limitations of previously used organic fluorophores, thus appearing as a choice methodology for studying distribution, persistence and long-term neurotoxicity of alum adjuvants and beyond of other types of nanoparticles.



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